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Unravelling HMRC's Tax Requirements for Payment on Account | Understanding the Essentials of the UK



When it comes to the UK tax system, it's essential to understand the HMRC's requirements to ensure smooth and stress-free financial management. One of the critical aspects is the payment on account, which affects self-employed individuals, freelancers, and those with significant income outside of their employment. In this blog, we will take a deep dive into the HMRC's requirement of payment on account, its implications, and how to navigate this aspect of the tax system efficiently.

What is Payment on Account?

Payment on account is a mechanism implemented by the HMRC to collect Income Tax and Class 4 National Insurance Contributions (NICs) in advance from self-employed individuals or those with substantial income not subject to Pay As You Earn (PAYE). These payments are based on the previous year's tax liability and are divided into two instalments, paid on 31st January and 31st July.

Who is required to make Payments on Account?

If you are self-employed, a freelancer, or have an income over £1,000 that is not subject to PAYE, you are required to make payments on account. This system also applies to those with an annual tax bill exceeding £1,000 after deducting tax paid at source, such as PAYE or savings interest.

How are Payments on Account calculated?

Payments on account are calculated based on your previous year's tax liability. Each instalment consists of 50% of the previous year's total tax bill, which includes Income Tax and Class 4 NICs. However, if your income significantly changes, you can apply to reduce your payments on account to better reflect your current financial situation.

What happens if you overpay or underpay?

If you overpay your payment on account, the excess amount will be carried forward and offset against your next tax bill. Conversely, if you underpay, you will be required to make a balancing payment by the following 31st January, which is the difference between your total tax liability and the payments on account made during the year. Failing to make this payment on time may result in interest charges and penalties.

Tips for Managing Payments on Account

  1. Budgeting and Financial Planning: To ensure a smooth tax payment process, it's essential to set aside funds for your payments on account. By regularly reviewing your financial situation, you can better anticipate and prepare for these payments, avoiding unnecessary stress.

  2. Updating Your Tax Return: If your income has changed significantly or your expenses have increased, you should update your tax return to provide an accurate reflection of your financial situation. This can help ensure your payments on account are calculated correctly, preventing overpayments or underpayments.

  3. Requesting a Reduction: If you believe your payments on account are too high, you can apply to reduce them. This can be done through your online HMRC account or by submitting a form SA303. However, be cautious when doing this, as underestimating your tax liability may lead to interest charges and penalties.


The HMRC's requirement of payment on account is an essential aspect of the UK tax system for self-employed individuals and those with significant income outside of their employment. Understanding how payments on account are calculated and managed will help you avoid unnecessary stress and financial strain. By staying informed, budgeting effectively, and keeping your tax return up-to-date, you can navigate the payments on account process with ease and confidence.



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